# Mathematics Courses (MA)

**095 Pre-Algebra (Math Skills) **(0 credits; Fall): This course helps students to prepare for MA 100 through formal instruction and self-paced computer tutorial. Basic mathematical skills will be covered. Topics include operations on whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, ratios, proportions, signed numbers, areas of geometric figures, and an introduction to the solution of linear equations.

**100 Elementary/Intermediate Algebra** (2 credits; Fall, Spring): This course is an introduction to the fundamental concepts and processes of Elementary and Intermediate Algebra, with an emphasis on problem-solving. This course is geared both to the individual needing a review of algebra and those attempting to overcome math anxiety. Topics include operations with signed numbers, solving and graphing equations and inequalities, operations with polynomials, factoring, radicals, exponents, and quadratic equations. Prerequisite: MA 095 or placement exam.

**110 Pre-Calculus Mathematics** (4 credits, day; Fall, Spring) (3 credits, evening; Spring): This course is an introduction to basic mathematical ideas and techniques centered on the function concepts. Includes relations and functions in general, algebraic functions, trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions. Prerequisite: MA 100 or placement exam.

**117 Mathematical Concepts I** (4 credits; Fall): This course is an introduction to mathematical reasoning and problem solving. The course emphasizes writing, individual and group investigations, and the use of relevant technology. Content focuses on number theory, college geometry, and the concept of infinity. Prerequisite: MA 100 or placement exam; open to all majors except Mathematics and Computer Science.

**118 Mathematical Concepts II** (4 credits; Spring): This course is a continuation of MA 117. Further development of mathematical reasoning and problem solving. The course emphasizes writing, individual and group investigations, and the use of relevant technology. Content focuses on geometry, probability, and data analysis. Prerequisite: MA 117.

**141 Elementary Statistics** (4 credits, day; Fall, Spring) (3 credits; evening, Fall, Spring, Summer): This course is an introduction to basic statistical techniques and their applications to the sciences, social sciences and business administration. It includes the collection and presentation of data, measures of central tendency and variability, probability, sampling distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation and regression, and introduction to analysis of variance. Students learn to use common computer packages in statistics. Prerequisite: MA 100 or placement exam.

**143 Business Math**: This course will provide an introduction to the mathematics necessary for a business student to pursue quantitatively oriented business courses including accounting, economics, marketing, finance and operations research. In addition this course will prepare a student for a business orientated calculus course. Topics will include: algebraic concepts, linear, quadratic, polynomial and rational functions; logarithm and exponential functions; limits and continuity and differentiation. Some of the specific applications include: fitting of curves, interest rate calculations, present and future values of annuities and marginal analysis. This course will also require students to take the accompanying Excel lab, where business applications will be reinforced using MS Excel exercises. Students will complete Excel related exercises applying the course concepts. Weekly exercises and projects will be outlined in a lab book which is included in the course requirements. Prerequisite: MA100 or placement exam.

**145 Quantitative Models for Decision Making (Finite Math)** (3 credits; Fall, Spring): This is a study of applications of mathematical functions, linear equations, linear inequalities, and matrix algebra to solve business decision-making problems utilizing computer-based spreadsheets. Prerequisite: MA 100 or placement exam.

**201 Calculus I** (4 credits; Fall, Spring): This introduction to basic calculus presents limits, continuity, the derivative, the definite and indefinite integral, applications. Prerequisite: MA 110 or placement exam.

**202 Calculus II** (4 credits; Fall, Spring): This continuation of MA 201 investigates further techniques of one-variable calculus, including techniques of integration, and infinite series. Prerequisite: MA 201.

**203 Calculus III** (4 credits; Fall): This continuation of MA 202 includes multi-variable calculus and applications. Prerequisite: MA 202.

**207 Applied Calculus I** (3 credits): This introduction to the concepts and notations of the calculus of one variable includes limits, continuity, the derivative, the definite and indefinite integral. It emphasizes applications to business and economics.Prerequisite: MA 110 or placement exam; or permission of the instructor. Not regularly offered.

**208 Applied Calculus II** (3 credits): This continuation of MA 207 develops the topics covered in the first semester. It also introduces differential equations. Prerequisite: MA 207 or 201. Not regularly offered.

**221 Linear Algebra** (4 credits, day; Fall): This intensive study of linear algebra includes essentials of finite-dimensional vector-spaces, linear transformation, matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, and determinants. Prerequisite: MA 201 or permission of the Chair.

**225 Writing Mathematics: A Transition to Higher Mathematics** (4 credits, Spring): This is the Computer Science and Mathematics Department's research writing (RW) course. Intended for second-semester sophomores, it focuses on helping students gain facility with the two major types of mathematical writing: clear, concise proofs written for other mathematicians; and explanations of mathematics aimed at non-technical audiences. Writing mathematics is not easily separated from the process of doing mathematics, so while writing takes center stage throughout the course, there are a number of important mathematical concepts that also are covered. Exposure to these topics and the ability to express them clearly will serve students well in all future higher-level math coursework. Prerequisites: EN101 and MA221.

**230 Discrete Structures** (3 credits, evening; Fall): This introduction to discrete mathematical structures with applications in computer science includes basic set algebra, functions, Boolean algebra, propositional logic, graph theory and trees. Prerequisite: MA 100 or placement exam.

**242 Intermediate Statistics **(4 credits; Spring even years): This in-depth examination of statistical concepts includes multiple correlation and regression, analysis of variance, non-parametric statistics, and sampling designs. It provides experience in working with computer packages in statistics**. **Prerequisites: MA 141 or permission of the instructor.

**288 Actuarial Seminar** (4 credits; Spring odd years): The purpose of this course is to develop knowledge of the fundamental tools for assessing risk. The application of these tools to problems encountered in actuarial science is emphasized. A thorough command of calculus and probability topics is assumed. Students learn the basics of risk management and risk theory. Students completing this course will be prepared for Exam P/Exam 1 of the Society of Actuaries/ Casuaty Actuarial Society. Prerequisites: MA 203 and MA 341.

**302 Introduction to Analysis **(4 credits; Spring odd years): This course is an introduction to the language, fundamental concepts and standard theorems of real analysis. Prerequisites: MA 203 and MA 225. Also, a 2.0 major GPA is required. However, a 2.20 major GPA is strongly recommended.

**315 Theory of Computation **(3 credits): In this introduction to the theoretical basis of computing, topics include: a review of graph theory; network models; grammars, languages and automata; Turing machines; computability. Prerequisites: CS 201 and either MA 230 or MA 322 or MA 302.

**322 Abstract Algebra I** (4 credits; Spring even years. Summer odd years.): This introduction to groups emphasizes developments leading to factor groups and group homomorphisms. It includes introductory study of rings and fields. Prerequisite: MA 221 and MA 225 or permission of the instructor. Also, a 2.0 major GPA is required. However, a 2.20 major GPA is strongly recommended.

**330 Graph Theory and Combinatorics** (4 credits; Fall, odd years.): Graph theory topics include planar graphs, Euler and Hamiltonian circuits, graph coloring, trees, depth-first and breadth-first search, network algorithms. Combinatorial topics include arrangements and selections, generating functions, recurrence relations, pigeon-hole principle, and inclusion-exclusion. This course covers applications to computer science and business and also material of interest to mathematics/ secondary education majors. MA 330 may be used to satisfy the Computer Science MA 230 requirement. Prerequisite: MA 203 and MA225 or permission of the instructor.

**331 Modern College Geometry **(4 credits; Spring): This is an examination of selected topics from Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry and projective geometry. It will introduce current software. Prerequisite: MA 202; or permission of the instructor.

**332 Topics in Geometry**—Not regularly scheduled. Prerequisite: MA 202; or permission of the instructor.

**341 Probability** (4 credits; Fall): This is a study of combinatorics, discrete and continuous random variables of one and two dimensions, expectations, commonly used probability models, and normal approximation. Co-requisite: MA 203.

**342 Mathematical Statistics I** (4 credits; Spring): This is a study of sampling theory, sampling distribution, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, linear regression and related topics. Prerequisite: MA 341.

**343 Mathematical Statistics II** (4 credits; Fall): This continuation of MA 342 includes regression models, time series, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). It employs the SAS programming language. Prerequisite: MA 342.

**352 Differential Equations** (4 credits; Spring): This in-depth examination of theory and methods of solution of differential equations includes computer utilization and applications. Prerequisite: MA 203.

**356 Numerical Analysis** (4 credits): This course is a mathematical analysis of interpolation procedures, polynomial approximations, numerical differentiation and integration. It includes their applications to computers. Not regularly scheduled. Prerequisites: MA 203 and CS 201.

**361 The Mathematical Theory of Interest** (4 credits; Spring even years): This course uses a problem-solving approach to introduce students to the mathematical theory and practice of interest. Much of the class time is spent solving problems similar in scope and level of difficulty to those in the actuarial exam on Mathematical Finance. The course covers the measurement of interest; equations of value; annuities, yield rates, amortization schedules and sinking funds; bonds and other securities; and recent, practical applications. Prerequisite: MA 202.

**362 Derivatives Markets** (3 credits, Spring even years): This is an introduction to the mathematics and finance necessary to understand financial derivatives. Co-requisite: MA 361 Mathematical Theory of Interest.

**385 Special Topics**:** **A course in special topics will be offered periodically. Topics will vary. Prerequisites: Will depend on the topic.

**389 Independent Study**: In this individualized study in a selected area, suggested topics include real variable (construction of the real numbers, metric spaces, properties of Reimann and Lebesque integrals), topology (introduction to the theory of topological spaces), advanced topics in graph and theory. Prerequisites: Senior standing and permission of the Chair.

**490 Mathematics Capstone** (1 credit): Mathematics majors must complete a substantial research project to satisfy Arcadia University’s Capstone requirement. Prerequisites: Students must also register concurrently for MA 330, MA 342, or MA 352. Junior or senior standing is required or permission of the Department Chair. Also, a 2.0 major GPA is required, and a 2.2 major GPA is highly recommended.